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The Indian Army

The Indian Army

The Indian Army (Hindi: भारत देश Army) is a land-based branch and the most significant element of the Indian armed forces. The President from India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, and its professional head is the Chief of the Indian Army Staff (COAS), a four-star general. 

Two officers have been granted the rank of field marshal, a five-star grade, which is a formal position of great honor. The Indian Army began from the armies of the East India Company, which eventually became the British Indian Army and Princely armies that were consolidated into the National Army later freedom. 

The units and regiments of this Indian Army have several memoirs. They have participated in numerous battles and campaigns around the world, earning many war and theater honors before and after independence.

The primary Target/ mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, to protect the nation from external assault and internal threats, and to maintain peace and security within its borders. 

It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural disasters and other disturbances such as Operation Surya Hope, and may also be required by the government to deal with internal threats.

It is a significant component of national power, along with the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. The Army has been committed to four wars with neighboring Pakistan and China. 

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Other primary operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot, and Operation Cactus. The military has carried out life-long exercises such as Operation Brastacks and Exercise Knights. It has also been an energetic participant in several UN peacekeeping operations, including Cyprus, Lebanon, Congo, Angola, Cambodia, Vietnam, Namibia, El Salvador. Liberia, Mozambique, South Sudan, and Somalia.

The Indian Army is operational and geographically divided into seven commands: the primary sector constituting a division. Below the division, the level is permanent regiments responsible for their recruitment and training. The Indian Army is an all-volunteer force and comprises more than 80% of the country’s active defense personnel. 

It is the most massive standing Army in the world, with 1,237,117 active soldiers and 960,000 reserve soldiers. The Army has launched an infantry modernization program known as the Futuristic Infantry Soldier A System (F-Insas). It is also upgrading and acquiring new assets for its armored, artillery, and aviation branches.

Indian army force

The Special Forces of India refer to the Special Forces units serving the Republic of India and are specially organized, trained, and equipped to carry out and support special operations. 

The three sections of the India Armed Forces have separate Special Forces units, such as Para SF of the Indian Army, Marcos of the Indian Navy, and Garuda Commando Force of the Indian Air Force.

However, small groups of these units have been deputed to the Armed Forces Special Operations Division, which has an integrated command and control structure. India’s external intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing has its separate Special Forces unit called Special Group.

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Indian Army

Para (Special Forces)

Para SF operator during a presentation on Army Day 2020

The Indian Army formed this unit in 1966.

During the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, a small ad-hoc force consisting of volunteers from most of the infantry units of North India worked along and behind enemy lines with Major Megh Singh of the Brigade of the Guards. The demonstration of this force created powers that sat up and paid attention to the contribution and raised the need for unconventional troops to rise. 

A battalion was raised to be an element of the Guard of the Brigade, forming the new force’s nucleus from the then disbanded Meghdoot Army volunteers. Still, being an integral part of the para detachment commando strategy, the unit moved to the parachute regiment Was given. In July 1966, the 9th Battalion was the first Special Operations unit of The Parachute Regiment (Commando).

As on date, on 1 July 1967, 9 para commandos were divided into ten para commandos in Gwalior. Para commandos were first deployed to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, with 9 Para Kodo occupying a massive gun battery at Mandhol in Poonch, J&K. He participated in the 1984 Operation Blue Star. During India’s involvement in the civil war in the 1980s, Operation Pawan was named Kodan Pawan. He also saw action in the Maldives in 1988 and Operation Cactus in the 1999 Kargil War.

The list of PARA (SF) battalions are:

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• 1 PARA (SF) (raised in 1961, changed to Para role in 1945, formed part of Para Regiment in 1952 and again changed to Commando in 1978)

• 2 PARA (SF) (Ex-3 Maratha LI, converted into Special Forces in 1999.)

• 3 PARA (SF) (Ex-1 Kumaon Regiment, turned to Special Forces in 2000)

• 4 PARA (SF) (raised in 1961, converted to special forces in 2001)

• 9 PARA (SF) (built-in 1966, the first dedicated special forces unit of the Indian Army)

• 10 PARA (SF) (built-in 1967)

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• 11 PARA (SF) (built 2011)

• 12 PARA (SF) (built-in 2013)

• 21 PARA (SF) (established 1996)

Indian Navy

MARCOS at INC Vikramaditya in 2018.

MARCOS

The Indian Navy built this unit in The year 1987. He saw action during Operation Pawan in 1988, and He was a part of Operation Cactus in 1988. They have also been deployed to the Wullar Lake, which is considered a significant infiltration point for armed militants.

During the 2008 Mumbai attacks, MARCOS participated in operations with national security guards. MARCOS, based in Alibaug, could have been called much earlier but was delayed due to bureaucratic indecision. MARCOS are capable of operations in all types of areas but are specialized in maritime operations. The force has conducted several joint exercises with special forces from around the world.

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Some responsibilities of MARCOS are-

• Providing support for amphibious operations.

• Special monitoring and reconnaissance operations.

• Covert operations inside hostile territory, including diving operations and raids.

• Anti-terrorism campaign.

Indian Air Force

Garuda Commando Force

Garuda Commando Exercise Air 2019

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It is an Indian Air Force unit that was unveiled in September 2004. It principally protects Indian Air Force bases and foundations from terrorist attacks. Garuda commandos are also involved in search and rescue during peace and hostilities and disaster relief during disasters.

Garuda trainees undergo a 72-week probation training course, the longest of all Indian special forces. The initial 12 months of training is to make them hardened soldiers; the total duration of training before an apprentice can be entirely conducted as the Garuda is about three years old.

The guards have diverse responsibilities. In addition to the Base Protection Force to protect airfields and critical assets in hostile environments, some advanced Garuda units are trained like Army Para Commandos and Naval MARCOS to carry out deep missions behind enemy lines.

Garuda Commando Para-Dropping in Exercise Iron Fist in Pokhran in 2013.

During hostilities, the Guards searched and defended combat, defended air force and other forces from behind enemy lines, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), busted radar, combat control, missiles, and targets. Guidance (“Lessing”) and other missions in support of aerial missions. It has been suggested that they play an aggressive role, including raiding enemy airbases, etc. during wartime. 

In addition to protecting the airbase from sabotage and attacks from commandos raids, they are also tasked with closing weapons systems, combat hangars, and other vital systems during infiltration and conflicts.

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Note: Indian Air Force installations such as radars, airfields, and other facilities in the border areas are generally guarded by the Air Force Police and the Defense Security Corps (DSC).

Indian army ranks

Commission officer

Commissioned officers are leaders of military and command units that range anywhere from company to army size. The dress badge is in gold (mentioned in red for two-star and higher) and in silver for the area symbol.

RanksInsigniaNotes
Field marshalNational emblem over a crossed baton and saber in a lotus blossom wreath.Only two appointments have ever been made.
GeneralNational emblem over a five-pointed star, all over a crossed baton and saber.Held only by the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee or Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army
Lieutenant generalNational emblem over crossed baton and saber.
Major generalFive-pointed star over crossed baton and saber.
BrigadierNational emblem over three five-pointed stars in a triangular formation.
ColonelNational emblem over two five-pointed stars
Lieutenant ColonelNational emblem over five-pointed star.
MajorNational emblem.
CaptainThree five-pointed stars.
LieutenantTwo five-pointed stars.
Second lieutenantFive-pointed star.The rank of second lieutenant is no longer used and all new officers are commissioned as lieutenants.

Junior Commissioned Officer

Junior commissioned officers are appointed as officers from the ranks and roughly equal to senior non-commissioned officers in Western armies.

RanksInsignia
Infantry and other armsCavalry and armour
Subedar majorRisaldar majorGold national emblem with stripe
SubedarRisaldarTwo gold stars with stripe
Naib subedarNaib risaldarOne gold star with stripe

Non commissioned officer

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Non-commissioned officers (“NCOs”) soldiers are promoted to positions of responsibility and are roughly the same as junior non-commissioned officers in Western armies.

RanksInsignia
Infantry and other armsCavalry and armour
Quartermaster havildarQuartermaster duffadarGold national emblem with three chevrons
HavildarDaffadarThree rank chevrons
NaikLance daffadarTwo rank chevrons
Lance naikActing lance daffadarSingle rank chevron
Sepoy (Sipahi)/JawanPlain shoulder badge only

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The Indian Army Commando Training – Special Forces of India.

    1. sibaranjan September 14, 2020
    2. sibaranjan September 14, 2020

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